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Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Culture / Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. (27478 Views)
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|Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by eniade07: 9:58am On Aug 05, 2022|
I was talking with a colleague an igala man from Kogi state, I later discovered during our conversation that most of their igala words are almost similar to yoruba words. Interestingly, the man told me that they're closer to the south eastern part of the country than the south west.I came across below quotation from wikipedia
"The Yoruba culture was originally an oral tradition, and the majority of Yoruba people are native speakers of the Yoruba language. The number of speakers is roughly estimated at about 30 million in 2010. Yoruba is classified within the Edekiri languages, and together with the isolate Igala, form the Yoruboid group of languages within what we now have as West Africa. Igala and Yoruba have important historical and cultural relationships. The languages of the two ethnic groups bear such a close resemblance that researchers such as Forde (1951) and Westermann and Bryan (1952) regarded Igala as a dialect of Yoruba"
"Also Igáláà is a Yoruboid language. It is spoken by the Igala ethnic group of Nigeria. In 1989 an estimated 800,000 spoke Igala, primarily in Kogi State, though current day estimates estimate upwards of 2 million Igala speakers. Dialects include Idah, Imane, Ankpa, Dekina, Ogugu, Ibaji and Ife. The Igala is related to Yoruba with which it shares a previous common ancestor, it remains unclear when both language split, mutual intelligibility in modern times is only marginal, although the sound/tonal systems remain the same, akin to the relationship between the various daughter languages of the Romance or Slavic language families. The Idoma and Bassa people use Igala in primary schools. The Igala language, as well as Igala culture and tradition, has influenced other languages and cultures around the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers".
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Chnbanc: 10:01am On Aug 05, 2022|
what of EBIRA?
They no relate una?
Them plenty for ondo state.
They claim it's their ancestral land.
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by GreatBoss: 10:32am On Aug 05, 2022|
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Bankysterian(m): 12:17pm On Aug 05, 2022|
Nice one linguist
There is a hidden anthropological relationship contact in the both language.
From the phonology to syntax and sociolingua
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by scholes0(m): 11:52pm On Aug 05, 2022|
@OP look at it this way, the closeness between the original aboriginal Igalas (Akpoto) & Yoruba is ancestral. A result of both groups descending from the same ancestors in deep prehistory that is so so old that nobody recorded it. The relationship between Igala & Igbo you friend talks about is as a result of geographical closeness/inter-relationship along border areas and some culture rubbing off each other. There are even igalas in today's Southeast. So actually, depending on the Igala you ask, there are varying degrees of closeness with neighbors. Some Igalas will tell you they are closest to Agatu/Idoma, some will tell u it is Bassa-Nge/Nupe. These are all location induced relatedness.
Igala looks like heavily modified archaic Yoruba.
Many of the words are the same. For those that are not exactly the same, I observed the following changes/modifications.
1)* I noticed keenly that Igala have evolved to replace the nasal vowels (Añ, Eñ, Ẹñ, Iñ, Oñ, Ọñ, Uñ) endings in Yoruba with their oral vowel equivalents. Because Yoruba has both 7 oral & nasal vowels... but seems Igala has the 7 oral (A, E, Ẹ, I, O, Ọ, U) but has retained only 1 of the nasal vowels (Uñ) used in negation or ending negative statements.
2)* Some consonant mutation in Igala that differs from the Yoruba equivalents, i.e (R to L), (L to N), (J to Bÿ), (S to R/L), (SH to CH) etc...
Here are some RULES:
Rule A*: Nasal vowel ending words in Yoruba to open vowel ending in Igala. Middle diphthong eliminated when present
Jeuñ (eat) - Jeñwu
Igbiñ (snail) - Igbi
Ohuñ (thing) - Eñwu
Eyiñ (tooth) - Eñyi
Hañ (show) - Ŋa
Ọkuñ (illipede) - Ọkọ
Eguñ (ancestors) - Egwu
Oguñ (medicine) - Ogwu
Fuñfuñ (white) - Fufu
Fañ (blow) - Fa
Agañ (barren) - Aga
Kañ (sour) - Ka
Okañ (one) - Oka
Oduñ (year) - Odo
Agbañ (chin) - Agba
Ouñ (he/she/it) - Oñwu
Ofuñ (throat) - Ofa
Oyañ (breats) - Eñya
Idiñ (maggot) - Ide
Ekuñ (leopard) - Eko
Tituñ (new) - Tito
Efañ (buffalo) - Efa
Rule B*: Consonant mutation R to L and vice versa
Kekere (small) - Kekele
Irawo (star) - Ilawo
Iri (dew/mist) - eli
Olu (lord) - Onu
Ro (cultivate) - Lo
Olamide (name) - Uramide
Iru (seed) - Ilu
Akere (toad) - Akele
Ra (buy) - La
Erira (ants) - Elila
Ri (see) - Li
Ora (fat) - Ula
Oruñgbe (thirst) - Olugbe
Eruru (ashes) - Elulu
Rule C*: Consonant mutation S to R/L
Ese (leg) - Ere
Eso (fruit) - Ero
Se (block) - Re
Sø (throw) - Rø
Su (roast) - Rø
Rule D*: Consonant mutation S and SH to CH
It seems like the "S" and “Sh” sound are absent in some Igala dialects, and they replace with a 'CH'... This dialect that lack the the S & SH sound seem to have become the standard dialect for the whole of Igala.
Sheyi (done this) - Cheyi
Oshu (moon) - Ochu
Ishu (yam) - Uchu
Ashe (authority) - Ache
Isha (pot) - Ucha
Shu (defecate) - Chu
Rule E*: Consonant mutation J to BŸ
Aja (dog) - Abya
Eje (seven) - Ebye
Ẹjɛ (blood) - Ẹbyɛ
Rule F*: Consonant mutation W to GW and from Hard palatal sounds to Gliding Palatal just like in the South-Eastern Yorubaland dialects..
Ẹwa (beans) - Ẹgwa
Ku (die) - Kwu
Gun (pound) - Gwu
Ekun (cry) - Ekwu
Oogun (sweat) - Uugwu
Wɛ (wash/bath) - Gwɛ
Wa (dig/drive) - Gwa
Rule G*: Consonant mutation L to N and reverse
Oluku (friend) - Onukwu
Ile/Ale (land) - Ane
Ale (night) - Ane
Ala (dream) - Ona
Enu (mouth) - Alu
Alejo (visitor) - Anojo
Ola (tomorrow) - Ona
Arugbo (old person) - Anagbo
Rule H*: Consonant mutation S to H
Esi (answer) - Ohi
Osi (left) - Ehi
Se (cook) - Hi
Rule A* + B*
Eriñ (four) - Ele
Oruñ (neck) - Olu
Iruñ (hair) - Ilo
Aruñ (five) - Alu
Erañ (meat) - Ela
Oruñ (sun) - Olu
Rule A* + C*
Esañ (nine) - Ela
Suñ (sleep) - Lu
Rule A* +D*
Eshiñshiñ (housefly) - Achichi
Rule A* + F*
Egunguñ (bone) - Ogwugwu
Iguñnu (vulture) - Ugwunu
Oguñ (twenty) - Ogwu
Rule A* +G*
Olokuñriñ (man) - Onokele
Olobiñriń (woman) - Onobule
Okunrin - Okele
Obinrin - Obule
Rule B* + C*
Sure (run/hasten) - Rule
Other Minor differencess with irregular rules
Bayii (like this) - Abayii
Øbɛ (soup) - Øbø
Owo/Ogho (money) - Oko
Wo/Gho (look) - Go
Ijo (dance) - Ido
Monamona (lightening) - Omamañya
Oru (midnight) - Odu
Iwowo (nudity) - Owowo
Eru (slave) -Adu
Ehoro (rabbit) - Efolo
Adiye (hen) - Ajuwe
Akuko (coc.k) - Ayiko
And finally,False friend cognates
Yo in Yoruba = Fully fed
Yo in Igala = Plump / Fat
Du in Yoruba - To contest an object
Du in Igala - To take an object
Oyuñ in Yoruba = Pregnancy
Oyu in Igala = Fat
Ebo in Yoruba - Sacrifice
Ebo in Igala - Deity
Edø in Yoruba = Liver
Edø in Igala = Heart/Chest
Wewe in Yoruba = Pieces
Uwewe in igala = Many
ilɛ in Yoruba = Earth (as in land)
ilɛ in Igala = Earth (as in the planet)
Ji in Yoruba = Steal
Oji in Igala = Thief
Da in Yoruba = Split
Da in Igala = Cut
Kpekun in Yoruba = Finish
Kpeko in Igala = Filled
Ka in Yoruba = Cant / Count / Talkative
Ka in Igala = Talk / Speak
There are many countless words that are exactly the same in both languages and need no further elucidation since we are focusing more on what has made the two languages different over time.
That being said, there are many other words too that are very different... Hence the reason why Igala shares approximately only about 64% or so word cognates with the General Yoruba we speak. The 40% that do not align between both is already enough to make inter-comprehension between both very hard... The biggest chunk of non Yoruboid words in Igala is from the neighbouring Idoma according to some research.
With this, I would give a Yoruba - give or take 6 months to master this language under complete exposure like going to live in Idah or Dekina.
Yoruba is Igala Pro Max. Once you master the grammatical rule of thumb in the formula required to convert from one dialect gloss to the other gloss ... you will master the language sharply.
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Naijaspanishguy: 12:25am On Aug 06, 2022|
You are very right on this.
I think the language formation was heavily influenced by Yoruba and igbo.
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Subsaharan: 8:44am On Aug 06, 2022|
They are all from the Niger-congoid family of languages. They all emanated from a Proto language, no one is superior to the other.
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by fadal(m): 12:48pm On Aug 15, 2022|
I don't know bout that but I know haussas says wahala just like the yorubas
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Christistruth00: 9:14pm On Aug 16, 2022|
Wahala was originally a Hausa word Yorubas before used to say ijogbon which means Trouble
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by fadal(m): 9:23pm On Aug 16, 2022|
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Olu317(m): 6:24am On Aug 18, 2022|
eniade07:Historical relationship exist for centuries due to the interactive nature of these two groups and more .
Although, Igala is a deer in Yoruba language remains a crossbreed of the people identified as Yorubas and Tapa extract. The word igala is identified as an animal name.
Originally,the oral history says, one of oranmiyan descendant was the founder of Igala with heavy influence of Tapa group and they are with knowledge of of ifa esoteric but not in full that is in accordance to Yoruba's ifa divination system.
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Olu317(m): 6:36am On Aug 18, 2022|
How do you mean Archaic Yoruba ? I will advise you consult extensively before assumption because misleading the public can be infectious. So,kindly do more research than posting submission as this.
Plainly, Igala has never been archaic Yoruba. The Olukwu still speak a dialect of Yoruba being encircled by heavy Ibo speakers.Yet the language cum dialect still retain its Yoruba dialect.
This people had lived in around the era Igala was formed which is over 800 years old and still retain Yoruba dialect . Therefore do not pressume on the Igala language.
So, redirect your research to the fact than asserting such view as "Archaic Yoruba language". The Igala language is not not not "Archaic Yoruba."
Furthermore, the comparison are in some true cognate but exaggeration exist in some areas you thought they same. For instance
There is nothing as Olokunrin or Olobinrin in Yoruba language. Appropriateley, it Okunrin/Ọkunrin or Obinrin/Obiri. Infact, Ajayi Crowther created Arabinrin and Arakunrin which never existed in Yoruba lexicon of ancient times.
Again, the comparison of Igala words with Yorubas still do not have synonymous words for the Yoruba words which differs from Igala's language.
So, kindly take note because all families are in iléifẹ to confirm whoever is telling false positing truth.
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by scholes0(m): 1:44pm On Aug 18, 2022|
Pls stick to what you know, or calm down and stop getting your panties in a bunch.
I said Igala sounds like heavily modified archaic Yoruba, I never said it is the archaic Yoruba, maybe you have comprehension issues..... If you have any contrary opinions, express it. It is an established fact that the NW Yoruba dialects (Your Oyo, Egba, Ibarapa and co) are the newest and latest evolving Yoruba dialects while the eastern dialects ( your Ekiti (Esun), Ufe, Ijebu, Ogho, Ondo, Okun of Kogi (Owe, Oworo, Iyagba and co) are the more archaic and stable...
That is why an Igala, Ekiti, Ondo, Itsekiri, Ijesha person will instantly interpret the title of Teni's popular single "Uyo Meyo" without breaking sweat, but your average Lagosian or Ibadan Yoruba will still be asking if that is even Yoruba language.
That is why the vocabulary of Igala is closer to that of the eastern dialects but with heavy mutations due to contact with Idoma and Igbo.
Igala and Olukumi do not belong to the same time period.
All linguists agree that Igala and the modern Yoruba dialects split off from a previous common proto language... so I don't know how any well informed person will be comparing the chronology of Olukumi vis-a-vis Yoruba with that of Igala, which shares a much more antiquated level of relationship.
Ps: Who told you there is nothing like Olokunrin in Yoruba. Stop overreaching yourself please.... or better still, just stick to your dialect and stay there.
And even if that was the case, where exactly are the exaggerations? because apart from that one example out of all those I have listed up there you haven't pointed to any other one.
Check a map please, Yoruba are not more southerly than Igala per se.... it is Nigeria's confusing political geography that makes people think along the lines of ;"Igala are North, Yoruba is South" Or have you forgotten there are Yorubas in the same "Northern" kogi state with the Igalas?
Geographically, Yorubaland extend both more in the Northerly and more in the Southerly directions than the reach of Igalas.... Which means that even within Yorubas, you will actually find Yoruba groups more northerly and more southerly than Igala geographically..... So you can see your hypothesis is already faulty.
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Adenikemolim: 1:50pm On Aug 18, 2022|
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by havenz(m): 1:50pm On Aug 18, 2022|
My bae na Igala and she dey speak both Igala and Yoruba very well, now my problem come be say i no even speak not to talk more of understanding both, e just be like say i dey one chance when she dey on phone call but am in love with her though.
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by gexeyi2986: 1:50pm On Aug 18, 2022|
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Freelane33(m): 1:50pm On Aug 18, 2022|
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by emmabest2000(m): 1:53pm On Aug 18, 2022|
Reading this episode is a colossal waste of time
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Realtalk20: 1:53pm On Aug 18, 2022|
Why are these people always trying to famz and party with a tribe.
That's how yesterday one of them was telling me that we Bini people are Yoruba and under them. That Oba is under their king..
There is something somewhere.
How can a whole tribe feel so insecure and always want to add other under them?
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by DSC7: 1:53pm On Aug 18, 2022|
One of the reasons i find it difficult to speak Igala
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Mindlog: 1:54pm On Aug 18, 2022|
And I think they are also part of Enugu and Anambra states
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by ariesbull: 1:54pm On Aug 18, 2022|
eniade07:the igaks man said that they are closely related to the igbo than the yoruba and the man had his reasons
They don't want to be associated with....
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Ekealterego: 1:54pm On Aug 18, 2022|
Today's Igala langauge is marginally intelligible with Yoruba.
They probably come from same proto-language.
Interestingly also, Igala and Benin seem to be the buffer zone or centre between Yoruba and Igbo.
They have an element of both.
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|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by ednut1(m): 1:54pm On Aug 18, 2022|
One of them split from the other at some point. Likely the Yoruba who moved south wards
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by Charlesdock(m): 1:54pm On Aug 18, 2022|
The first time I noticed was last year when an Igala friend was talking to his Dad on phone and he was saying Ekeji and other numerals. They sounded so much like Yoruba.
I think the Yoruba and Igala language are family in Language classification.
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by DJSNAKE: 1:55pm On Aug 18, 2022|
Igala was a yoruba who ran away with the princess to far away land.... i will update the full history once i get home
|Re: Relationship Between Yoruba Language And Igala Language. by DenreleDave: 1:55pm On Aug 18, 2022|
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